Computers have been employed within the field of education for many years, often with disappointing results. However, recent and current research within the field of artificial intelligence (AI) is having a positive impact on educational applications. For example, there now exist ICAI (intelligent computer-assisted instruction) systems to teach or tutor many different subjects; several such systems are discussed herein. In addition to CAI (computer-assisted instruction) systems, we discuss the development of learning environments that are designed to facilitate student-initiated learning. A third major application is the use of expert systems to assist with educational diagnosis and assessment. During the course of our discussion of these three major application areas, we indicate where AI has already played a major role in the development of such systems and where further research is required in order to overcome current limitations.